Hiking News

Hikes To Explore Colorado’s Western Slope This Summer

Posted by on Jun 23, 2017 @ 11:40 am in Colorado, Hiking News | 0 comments

Hikes To Explore Colorado’s Western Slope This Summer

Colorado’s Western Slope is rich in backcountry hikes. Knowing where to find them — and what to expect on a trail — just got easier with a new guidebook by Grand Junction outdoor writer Bill Haggerty. The Falcon Guides “Hiking Colorado’s Western Slope” has details on more than 45 trails in Western Colorado.

It doesn’t have just the standard route descriptions. Haggerty includes historical tidbits, geological information, suitability for canines, and observations gleaned from a lifetime of hiking in Colorado. His trail descriptions incorporate the joy he finds in hiking.

Haggerty says he often wonders whether publicizing hikes like these means they’ll get too crowded.

“Yes, that’s been a problem about writing for the outdoors since 1976 when I had my first column about the Black Canyon. And I’ve really wrestled with it for years,” he said. “But my main issue remains that if you don’t write about it, if you don’t get people out there if they don’t understand what they have, it will be ignored, and then taken advantage of. And somebody else will take it and it’ll be gone from us.”

Haggerty’s book comes out just as the Colorado Trail Explorer – a comprehensive online statewide trail map – goes live. That online resource is part of Gov. John Hickenlooper’s Colorado the Beautiful Initiative.

See Haggerty’s recommendations…


Hiking and biking County Mayo, Ireland’s Wild West

Posted by on Jun 23, 2017 @ 7:20 am in Hiking News | 0 comments

Hiking and biking County Mayo, Ireland’s Wild West

When the sun breaks out in rural Ireland, you can almost believe in fairies.

County Mayo is the kind of place that visitors imagine when they think of rural Ireland: whitewashed stone houses in impossibly green fields dotted with sheep; rolling hills that tumble into the sea or break off in sheer cliffs; narrow winding roads that lead to villages with pubs and fish markets; residents with an admirable patience who are happy to take a moment to chat; small towns with cozy cafes and restaurants serving local fare.

Croagh Patrick reposes like a sleeping giant on the edge of Clew Bay. It dominates the landscape in western Mayo and tempts day hikers of all stripes with its gradual slope rising to a 2,507-foot summit.

Within minutes, the view opens up over the pastures and hills; islands dot the silver sea below. Teams of paramedics relaxed around first-aid tents, ready for the inevitable injuries. Children bounded by, leaving parents and grandparents behind, scrambled up hillsides for better views, shouted to each other. Some climbers wore the Gore-Tex of serious hikers, others seemingly their Sunday best. Some wore stout shoes, others flimsy sneakers. Some were barefoot on the loose, sharp stones as part of the Reek Sunday ritual, the annual pilgrimage day when tens of thousands of people make the ascent.

Depending on the source, this pilgrimage predates St. Patrick by a millennium or more. Some say the annual rite began in the Stone Age 5,000 years ago when people climbed to mark harvest season; others say it started 1,500 years ago. All seem to agree that St. Patrick fasted here for 40 days in 441, and since then the pilgrimage has been made in his honor.

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White Settlers Wiped Thousands of Miles of Cherokee Trails Off the Map. This Man is Reclaiming Them.

Posted by on Jun 22, 2017 @ 11:47 am in Hiking News | 0 comments

White Settlers Wiped Thousands of Miles of Cherokee Trails Off the Map. This Man is Reclaiming Them.

These routes once snaked through the towering woods of Appalachia, before they were lost to history. Lamar Marshall has spent a decade painstakingly mapping them, and their rich history.

Marshall cannot make it over the log. It lays across a small creek somewhere in the Nantahala National Forest outside Cowee, western North Carolina, as a bridge. His problem is a bruised knee, caused by a bang against his home firewood cord. Standing in front of the thick trunk, seeking another way across, he explains that while this particular log was not laid by ancient Cherokees, it does resemble the way they would fell logs to get across creeks like this. “They called ‘em racoon bridges,” he explains. If anyone would know this, it’s Marshall.

The former land surveyor, electrical engineer, and Alabamian anti-logging activist (in that order), is the world’s foremost expert on ancient Cherokee trails.

At 68 he’s stocky, with a soft, even face, like a meatier Billy Bob Thornton, and long eyelashes. He speaks softly, with a southern drawl. In this forest, on a warm late-winter day, he wears spectacles and a hearing aid, but also a camo jacket and pants, and a waist-pack stuffed with surveying gear.

It is often in this appearance, a hunter’s getup, that Marshall has personally mapped well over one thousand miles of Cherokee trails across Appalachia, compiling the mappings into a vast database, complete with historical annotations and Cherokee place names. And his boots are waterproof, he notes, as he carefully fords the creek.

There are certain attributes which are common to Cherokee trails. They tend to follow rivers or ridge-lines. They are often steep. Brett Riggs, an archaeologist at Western Carolina University with a specialty in Cherokee landscapes, equates them with a modern highway system in the way that they linked population centers.

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What you need to know about wildfire safety

Posted by on Jun 22, 2017 @ 7:22 am in Hiking News | 0 comments

What you need to know about wildfire safety

Wildfire season is approaching fast.

Poor air quality that limits athletic activity, the devastation of the places where we play, the release of climate change-causing carbons into our atmosphere, the economic impact on rural communities… these terrifying consequences are just some of the negative effects of forest fires.

Unfortunately, wildfires are only just increasing in severity, size and duration. The average wildfire is now five times as severe as it would have been in the 1970s. Just about 20 years ago, the United States Forest Service, which is one of the primary agencies bearing the financial burden of fighting these fires, used only 16 percent of its annual budget dealing with wildfire. 2015 was the first summer where over half the USFS annual funds for all of its programs, which cover prevention as well as suppression efforts, were needed to combat the extreme fire season.

The price to fight these fires is steep and is expected to increase to nearly $1.8 billion by 2025. Each year, the USFS and the BLM have to devote more and more resources to fighting fires. This means other important work, including the restoration and prevention programs that reduce the threat of wildfire, gets pushed to the wayside.

How can you protect the forests, and yourself?


Hike in the Footsteps of Teddy Roosevelt

Posted by on Jun 21, 2017 @ 11:30 am in Hiking News | 0 comments

Hike in the Footsteps of Teddy Roosevelt

When Theodore Roosevelt took office as the United States’ 26th president, he was only 42, the youngest president in the history of the nation. He was also a fanatic for the outdoors, and was actually heading back from a hike when his predecessor, President William McKinley, took a turn for the worst after an assassination attempt and died.

The presidency and life at the White House didn’t stop Roosevelt from enjoying a life outdoors, though. He had a tendency to take ambassadors and friends with him on intense hikes around Washington, D.C., and across the country. “What the President called a walk was a run: no stop, no breathing time, no slacking of speed, but a continuous race, careless of mud, thorns and the rest,” French ambassador Jean Jules Jusserand detailed in his memoirs.

When Roosevelt was in office, Rock Creek Park in Washington D.C. was one of his favorite spots to go hiking. He’d often suggest a walk to members of his “tennis cabinet” (a group of informal advisors) or to foreign ambassadors visiting the U.S. Follow the 3.5-mile Boulder Bridge hike through the part of the park Roosevelt frequented. He lost a gold ring at the bridge itself, leaving an ad in the paper for its return: “Golden ring lost near Boulder Bridge in Rock Creek. If found, return to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. Ask for Teddy.”

On one hike in this area, he brought along Jusserand—who was said to be the only one who could actually keep up with Roosevelt on his hikes. The two became fast friends after an incident on the hike. The president, intending to cross Rock Creek, stripped naked in order to keep his clothes dry for when they emerged on the other side. Jusserand reluctantly did the same.

See more of Teddy’s favorite hikes…


Spiritual Adventures to Challenge the Mind and Body

Posted by on Jun 21, 2017 @ 7:11 am in Hiking News | 0 comments

Spiritual Adventures to Challenge the Mind and Body

Any quiet walk in the woods can be a spiritual experience, and countless hikers head to redwood groves and high places to find a sense of awe. But if following a dirt track is a kind of prayer—the hypnotizing rhythm of feet and breath an ancient song—some trails are true religious pilgrimages, routes laid down by the faithful.

From the high peaks of South Korea to an Irish landscape of heather and bogs, these hikes draw believers from around the world, following paths trod by Christian pilgrims, Buddhist monks, and Celtic pagans. And whether they sleep in historic abbeys or under the stars, devotees hike in a long tradition of spiritual seekers in the wilderness. With wild beauty and fascinating culture, these trails call even secular trekkers to make the journey, pulling on their boots for the hike of a lifetime.

Ireland’s patron saint fasted for 40 days on the peak of this gentle mountain, Croagh Patrick, which overlooks fields of heather, bogs, and the islands of Clew Bay—it’s also the mythical site where he banished the snakes from Ireland. More than 25,000 Catholic faithful follow in his footsteps on the yearly Reek Sunday walk, hiking up the slopes of Croagh Patrick to a small summit chapel.

But when Saint Patrick came to the mountain in 441 A.D., Croagh Patrick had already been a pilgrimage place for thousands of years. Archeologists have unearthed the ruins of a Celtic fort that once stood watch over the peak, and Ireland’s pagans once gathered here to reach pre-Christian spirits and celebrate Lughnasa, an exuberant Gaelic kickoff to each year’s harvest season.

Learn of other spiritual hiking here…


Stages of heat illness: When you need to go to the E.R.

Posted by on Jun 20, 2017 @ 10:45 am in Hiking News | 0 comments

Stages of heat illness: When you need to go to the E.R.

Did you know that 600-700 people die from heat-related illness every year? The elderly are most at risk, but athletic teens are too. And yes, even us hikers.

In fact, heat-related illness is the third highest cause for death in young athletes. Specifically, football players in the month of August are at the top of that list.

How sick you get from heat depends on how high your body temperature is.

At Stage 1, your body temperature is between 98 and 103 degrees.

Symptoms include:

• Nausea
• Increased heart rate
• Vomiting
• Flushing (skin turns red)

If you have these symptoms you don’t necessarily have to go to the hospital, just get out of the sun immediately and try to cool off.

Get under some iced water, or better yet, put ice packs under your armpits. That’s where your largest blood vessels are, and how you can cool your body the fastest.

When your body temperature is between 104 and 108 degrees, you’re in Stage 2.

Learn what happens next…

More important info here…


Kanarraville Falls: Best kept secret becomes nightmare

Posted by on Jun 19, 2017 @ 9:20 am in Hiking News | 0 comments

Kanarraville Falls: Best kept secret becomes nightmare

For years, Kanarraville Falls was one of Southern Utah’s best-kept secrets. The hidden hike leading to a slot canyon waterfall was seemingly reserved for residents of the small town of Kanarraville.

Over the span of a few years, the natural wonder turned into a big problem for the locals.

They first noticed the increase during the Fourth of July weekend in 2004. Town council member Tyler Allred remembers being surprised by the 75 cars squeezed into the land between the edge of creek and down the hill leading to the town. “It was a catastrophe,” Allred said. Now, that would be low attendance for a busy summer weekend.

In the 13 years since then, the popularity of the 4.8 mile hike has exploded through social media, marketing and word of mouth.

What used to be a treasure has now become a nightmare for many Kanarraville residents. The influx of hikers has left the small community of 350 faced with many difficulties they would have never known otherwise, including parking problems and fears of contamination of the primary water source.

Now, they’re facing opposition and criticism as they try to do what’s best for their community.

Read full story…


Exploring the Hiking Trails of Olympia’s Priest Point Park

Posted by on Jun 18, 2017 @ 6:53 am in Hiking News | 0 comments

Exploring the Hiking Trails of Olympia’s Priest Point Park

Olympia, Washington has a special relationship with nature and its parks. For generations residents have been taking friends and family members out into nature, enjoying picnics, hiking through forests and strolling along the beaches, connecting with the community and lands they call home.

Since 1905, when it was first opened to the public, Priest Point Park has been giving families in the Olympia area fantastic access to a beautiful forest, a gorgeous section of beach and magnificent views from the madrona-lined bluffs over Budd Inlet. Today, the beach area continues to be one of the most visited parks in the South Puget Sound, allowing access to the sound itself while enjoying the majestic views of the Olympic Mountains.

Many know of Olympia’s Priest Point Park, especially the playground and main picnic and beach areas, but few are aware of the miles of trails, hidden viewpoints and appealing forest paths spread throughout this 314 acre city park. Fewer still have heard of the trail maintenance that has occurred or witnessed firsthand the newly-designed rose garden area, complete with a new archway and covered picnic section.

Priest Point Park, like Olympia, is always changing for the better, with numerous beautification projects going on under the radar. Next time you visit the park, instead of sticking to the regular routine, head out and explore the pristine paths working their way around this iconic, as well as historic, favorite destination.

Read full story…


How dangerous are High Sierra conditions right now? Even experienced hikers say ‘stay out’

Posted by on Jun 17, 2017 @ 12:30 pm in Hiking News | 0 comments

How dangerous are High Sierra conditions right now? Even experienced hikers say ‘stay out’

High-elevation hiking and backpacking in early summer typically requires a tolerance for snow and swollen creeks. Except conditions this year in the Sierra Nevada, with last winter’s giant snowpack starting to melt, are anything but typical. They’re treacherous and potentially deadly – even for the most experienced and best equipped wilderness travelers.

“In a normal year going out in mid-June would still be challenging,” said Jack Haskel, trail information specialist for the Pacific Crest Trail Association. “This has not been a normal year at all. It has been challenging, dangerous and there have been a lot of serious incidents that are deeply concerning.”

Haskel’s primary source of concern is this year’s class of PCT thru-hikers, the 3,000 or more hardy souls attempting to complete the 2,650-mile trek from Mexico to Canada in one push.

A snowpack measuring 164 percent of average in the Southern Sierra already has been responsible for a couple of fatalities, both along the PCT and on Mount Whitney, and several near misses. At a time when backcountry rangers in the High Sierra are still being mobilized – they’re not immune to the conditions, either – there will almost certainly be more.

Heavy-snow years like this one require a skill set above and beyond normal backpacking. That’s especially true if you plan to venture across avalanche-prone slopes or surmount 12,000- and 13,000-foot passes. But an even greater danger lurks in the canyons and valleys: creek crossings.

Creeks and streams that will be mere trickles by late summer are currently raging torrents fed by snowmelt. Crossing them requires a great deal of experience and nerve. Some are simply impassable.

Read full story…


‘I’ve never seen that much garbage’: pair of hikers carry out other people’s trash

Posted by on Jun 15, 2017 @ 12:28 pm in Hiking News | 1 comment

‘I’ve never seen that much garbage’: pair of hikers carry out other people’s trash

Two British Columbia photographers stumbled upon the ugly side of Joffree Lakes Provincial Park. Vince Emond and Devin Francis spotted the equivalent of three large garbage bags full of chopsticks, empty sushi containers and red party cups behind a boulder right next to the trail leading to upper Joffree Lakes.

“I’ve never seen that much garbage clearly stashed. Someone was clearly trying to avoid taking that down … it was disgusting,” said Emond.

The pair then found a tarp full of beer cans and a tent cover and its case beside that.

“When we were leaving, we said we can’t let this stay here,” said Francis. “Even if it is not yours, if you find it, it’s more or less your responsibility to do something about it,” he said.

They filled every bag they had with garbage and sacrificed any other bags they had brought, including a brand new sleeping bag cover.

“It was just fully dripping with garbage juice by the time we got to the bottom,” said Emond.

They estimate they carried out nearly 40 pounds of garbage that others had left behind on the well-groomed trail.

Read full story…


Volunteers Needed for Rainbow Falls Trail Rehabilitation at Smokies Park

Posted by on Jun 13, 2017 @ 7:14 am in Conservation, Hiking News | 0 comments

Volunteers Needed for Rainbow Falls Trail Rehabilitation at Smokies Park

Great Smoky Mountains National Park is currently recruiting for volunteers to assist the Trails Forever trail crew for a rehabilitation project on the Rainbow Falls Trail. Volunteers are needed every Wednesday from approximately 9:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. Volunteers must register at least one week in advance by contacting Trails and Facilities Volunteer Coordinator, Adam Monroe, by email or phone.

The Trails Forever crew will focus rehabilitation efforts on several targeted locations along the 6-mile trail to improve visitor safety and stabilize eroding trail sections. Rainbow Falls Trail is one of the most popular trails in the park leading hikers to Rainbow Falls and Mt. Le Conte. The planned work will improve overall trail safety and protect natural resources by reducing trail braiding and improving drainage to prevent further erosion.

“This work will be a long-term solution to the various safety and route finding issues found along this section of the Rainbow Falls Trail and will allow visitors to enjoy the trail and the scenic areas surrounding it safely for years to come,” said Tobias Miller, Trails and Roads Facility Manager. “This project would not be possible without the generous support from our park partner, Friends of the Smokies, who provide funding for the project through the trails forever endowment program.”

The Trails Forever program provides opportunities for both skilled and non-skilled volunteers to work alongside park crews to make lasting improvements to park trails. The Rainbow Falls Trail project provides a great opportunity to improve a part of the park that was damaged by the 2016 wildfires.

Trails Forever volunteers will perform a wide range of trail maintenance and trail rehabilitation work depending on volunteer experience level including installing drainage features, rehabilitating trail surfaces, constructing raised trail segments, removing brush, or planting vegetation. While these jobs may vary in complexity, all Trails Forever volunteers must be able to hike at least 4 miles and safely perform strenuous and often difficult manual labor.

Volunteers should be comfortable lifting heavy objects and using hand tools such as shovels, rakes, axes, and sledgehammers. The park will provide all the safety gear, tools and equipment needed for the projects. Volunteers will need to wear boots and long pants and bring a day pack with food, water, rain gear and any other personal gear for the day.

The Trails Forever program is a partnership between the national park and Friends of the Smokies. To sign up for a work day or for more information, contact Adam Monroe at 828-497-1949 or [email protected] Prior notice of your attendance is mandatory for project planning. More information and Frequently Asked Questions can be found at https://friendsofthesmokies.org/trailsforever/volunteer/.


Why Spending Time Outdoors Will Simplify Your Life

Posted by on Jun 11, 2017 @ 11:37 am in Hiking News | 0 comments

Why Spending Time Outdoors Will Simplify Your Life

Think back to the last time you spent some quality time in nature. I mean, really lingered there. Where were you? What did you do? Did you sit among a sea of grasses and listen to the blades softly sway against each other? Did you stand tall on a mountaintop and drink in the solitude? Were you gathered amongst family and friends, simply enjoying each other’s company without commercial and material distractions? Think about it a little more. Was there ever a time when you actually came back more stressed from time spent outside than when you started? Why is that? What makes the outdoors so rejuvenating?

The concept of the renewing quality of nature has perplexed and enticed people for centuries. Read any of the soul-filled writings by authors such as Aldo Leopold, Edward Abbey, Henry David Thoreau, John Muir, and Rachel Carson, to name a few. Or listen to the wistful songs of John Denver and other musicians that have considered nature their muse.

Think of all the paintings, sculptures and media that have been inspired by the natural world. I think our human connection to nature is incredibly deep, probably greater than we realize. Some people are more aware of it than others; maybe some are more unfamiliar with it because they simply haven’t been presented with or given themselves the opportunity to discover it on their own.

Regardless, we have this bank of peace right at our fingertips. So why does making that withdrawal from it often slip our minds? To what are we depositing our time instead?

Answers to these questions, and more, here…


Oakland’s 510 Hikers Is All About Community

Posted by on Jun 10, 2017 @ 9:16 am in Hiking News | 0 comments

Nicholas Collins is founder of 510 Hikers, a community group that gets together weekly at various hiking spots. Collins is an East Oakland, CA native who grew up in the Hillmont area, and Leona Canyon Regional Park was his backyard.

Hikers meet with Collins every Saturday morning, from kids with their parents and couples wanting to get fit to friends, co-workers, grandparents — you name it.

Collins believes in fostering a close-knit community with a family feel, so novice hikers will feel at ease knowing that they will never be left behind, no matter how difficult the trail.

Every Wednesday, Collins posts that weekend’s hike location, as well as the time and the exact meeting point. From there, the hikers interested RSVP, and on Saturday meet for a quick stretch session beforehand. The locations vary, and the goal is to explore as many sites as possible.

When asked what hiking location an inexperienced trekker should attempt, Collins said, without a doubt, the Sequoia Bayview Trail at Joaquin Miller Park. As for the most-challenging adventure, he cited Purisima Creek Redwoods in Portola: 16 miles of rocky terrain, narrow paths, and rolling hills.

But it’s not about the challenge. “I want people to know hiking is about adventure and exploring and getting something not only with nature, but with yourself,” Collins said.

Learn more here…


Towns to Trails: Creating a 200-mile loop trail in the Columbia River Gorge

Posted by on Jun 9, 2017 @ 12:12 pm in Hiking News | 0 comments

In the not too distant future, visitors to the Columbia River Gorge will be able to do all or part of a 200-mile loop trail that connects wineries, breweries, lodging and restaurants.

It’s called Towns to Trails. One of the gateway communities on the Washington side of the Gorge is Washougal, where a shiny new trail will be a departure point.

Day hiking is already a very popular activity in the Gorge, but the nonprofit group Friends of the Gorge decided about 6 years ago to link existing and new trails together. The recently completed Washougal Waterfront Park will be an anchor point for the trail at the Gorge’s west end.

“The opportunity for international and world class traveling is to be able to land at Portland International Airport and to be able to hit one of these gateway communities, and then hike east to the next town …,” said Friends of the Gorge spokeswoman, Renee Tkach. “The idea is not to have that big backpack on your back any longer. It’s something where you have a daypack so you’re packing just something you need for your day essentials.”

Tkach says about 90 percent of the trails from Washougal to Stevenson are nearly complete.

Read full story…


Guide to Peru adventure travel and action sports

Posted by on Jun 8, 2017 @ 12:09 pm in Hiking News | 0 comments

Guide to Peru adventure travel and action sports

Located in the west of South America, Peru offers adventures as varied as its climate and regions. With arid coastal deserts, cooler Andean highlands and tropical rainforest it plays host to spectacular scenery and exciting activities.

The landscape of Peru can be divided into three regions; the coast, the highlands and the rainforest. The coast is a narrow strip of land running from the north to the south on the east side of the country; it is bordered by the Pacific Ocean on the east and the Andes mountains on the West. The land here is dry and desert like, although more greenery appears the further south you travel.

The coast has a sub tropical climate where there is little rain; this region is warmer in the north although the whole coast is subject to the cold Humboldt Current in the Pacific making the warmest time January to March and the coolest July to September. Central and Southern coastal cities are affected by fog in the winter.

The highlands of the Andes Mountains run parallel to the coast and cut the country in half. With 37 peaks of over 6000m the Andes make quite a barrier and crossing from one side of the country to the other difficult. The highest peaks of Huascarán S (6,768) Huascarán N (6,655), Yerupajá (6,617) are all in the Ancash region and part of the Cordillera Blanca range.

The highlands are affected mostly by the Andes Mountains with temperatures ranging from cool to very cold; the higher the altitude the lower the temperatures with rain in the summer months of September to March and dry winters during May to August, so plan Peru adventure travel and action sports around the conditions.

This guide to Peru adventure travel and action sports looks at the range of activities available – visiting Peru can be as relaxing or as adrenaline fueled as you wish to make it.

Read full story…


Through the Devil’s Doorway: Hiking the Bluff Trails of Wisconsin’s Devil’s Lake State Park

Posted by on Jun 7, 2017 @ 1:46 pm in Hiking News | 0 comments

Through the Devil’s Doorway: Hiking the Bluff Trails of Wisconsin’s Devil’s Lake State Park

Known as one of the Midwest’s premier rock climbing parks, Devil’s Lake State Park is also a hiker’s dream. This 9,000 acre park includes a 360 acre natural lake, banked on two sides with 500 foot tall bluffs, and over 20 miles of hiking trails ranging from easy to difficult.

Located just outside of the town of Baraboo, Wisconsin (only about 40 minutes northwest of the Capital city of Madison), the park is within the Baraboo Hills, a national natural landmark. These hills are over 1.6 billion years old, and were once part of the Baraboo Mountain Range which was probably taller than today’s Rocky Mountains.

This area was at the southern end of the most recent glacial activity, and the bluffs were not scoured by the movement of the ice. The lake was formed when the glacial till was deposited at both ends of the hills, closing off the area between.

The main rock here is Quartzite, a very hard rock that was once sandstone beneath a great sea. Over time, the sandstone was subject to pressure, turning it into this unusual rock found only in a few places in the country. Due to the silica content of the rock, it does not hold much soil, so the rock outcroppings are generally visible with very few trees and plants on them.

There are plenty of trails to hike at the park, but most interesting to the majority of visitors are the East Bluff and West Bluff Trails. These trails are approximately 1.5 miles each, and circle Devil’s Lake from high above the 500 foot tall bluffs.

Read full story…